From the top · 3 January 2018

The biggest business gambles and blunders of all time

Time Warner's Gerald Levin, left, with AOL's Stephen Case announcing the merger
Time Warner’s Gerald Levin, left, with AOL’s Stephen Case announcing the merger of their respective firms
From failed mergers to winning acquisitions, weve looked back on some of the most iconic commercial decisions made since the turn of the century to help entrepreneurs decide when business gambles might be worth taking.

Mergers and acquisitions

AOL Time Warner

In 2000, AOL’s’stephen Case and media company Time Warner’sgerald Levin announced a merger of their respective firms in a deal meant to signal the internet’s victory over traditional media business models.

The deal was valued at $165bn in 2001, making it still the largest merger in US business history. Time Warner expected to digitise its content and tap into AOL’s 27m subscriber base while AOL wanted access to Time Warner’s vast cable networks in return.

However, two different corporate cultures failed to integrate and the bursting of the dotcom? bubble exposed AOL’s overvaluation. The merger was quickly seen as a failure and Time Warner registered a loss of $99bn in 2002.

By 2009, AOL was spun-off as its own company, and was sold off for $4.4bn. Acknowledging a misjudgement of the internet’s role in media, Time Warner chief, Jeff Bawkes, described the merger as the biggest mistake in corporate history. Television networks were not replaced by media companies, and Bawkes later conceded that brands like Apple and Google should recognise positions as tech companies and not content creators.

Disney Pixar

Mandatory Credit: Photo by Eric Charbonneau/REX/Shutterstock (4377363bt) HOLLYWOOD, CA - JUNE 13: Disney's Bob Iger and Disney/Pixar's John Lasseter at the World Premiere of Disney/Pixar's 'Toy Story 3' on June 13, 2010 at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood, California. World Premiere of Disney/Pixar's 'Toy Story 3' Hollywood Los Angeles, America.
Bob Iger and John Lasseter at the World Premiere of Toy Story 3, 2010 | Credit: Eric Charbonneau
Eyebrows were raised throughout the film industry when Disney CEO, Robert Iger, paid $7.4bn for Pixar Animation Studios in 2006. On the surface, Disney’s established animation empire was healthy. However, following the success of Pixar titles Monsters, Inc. and Finding Nemo at the turn of the century, Iger knew Disney needed an injection of ideas.

Iger, the story goes, made the decision to buy Pixar at the opening of Hong Kong Disneyland in 2005. According to John Lasseter, Disney’s chief creative officer, Iger noticed that a parade procession of characters featured no Disney creations from the previous decade, with Pixar’s own stars the new favourites.

Over the next decade, Pixar’s flair for new and exciting characters was leveraged by Disney’s vast global networks to sustain what is considered one of the most successful business acquisitions of all time.

How can you avoid a hostile takeover? Learn about the different kinds of mergers and acquisition

Missed opportunities

Netflix versus Blockbuster

Before online streaming, bricks and mortar chain Blockbuster ruled the rental roost. So, when Netflix co-founder Reed Hastings approached then-Blockbuster CEO John Antioco with a partnership pitch in 2000, his DVD rental service-by post was written off as a small, niche business that would struggle to grow.

According to Netflix’s former CFO, who accompanied its co-founders in the now infamous meeting, Antioco and his Blockbuster associates just about laughed us out of their office.

By the end of£2013 Blockbuster had announced the closure of all UK branches
By the end of£2013 Blockbuster had announced the closure of all UK branches
Blockbuster eventually filed for bankruptcy in 2010, having lost $1.1bn. At the same time, Netflix’s value rose to around $13bn. When Blockbuster ceased operations in 2013, Netflix was beginning its expansion into film and television production.

Now valued at $80bn and boasting almost 110m subscribers worldwide, Netflix has led the rise of streaming and changed how television media operates.

Dropbox Turning down $800m for your startup

Dropbox co-founders Arash FerdowsI and Drew Houston
Dropbox co-founders Arash FerdowsI and Drew Houston
He redefined our relationship with portable technology as Apple CEO, but letting Dropbox slip through his fingers troubled Steve Jobs.

In 2009, Jobs offered Drew Houston and Arash FerdowsI $800m for their company, cloud storage service Dropbox an offer the co-founders turned down. To goad the duo into selling, he told Houston and FerdowsI that Dropbox was only a feature, not a product itself, and would struggle to survive.

Confident they could build a successful company around cloud storage, the pair cut Jobs off and insisted the business wasnt for sale at any price.

Having failed to buy the company out, Jobs pledged to come after? Dropbox and kill it off with Apple’s own iCloud service. However, at its most recent valuation of $3.5bn, and 500m users, Houston and FerdowsI showed that holding your nerve in front of a nine-digit offer could just pay off.

Yahoo Letting Google out of its grasptwice

Perhaps the most costly of business gambles, Yahoo has twice turned down opportunities to acquire Google. In 1998, PhD studentslarry Page and SergeI Brin offered their PageRank system, which later formed the basis of Google search results, to Yahoo for as little as $1m with plans to focus on their studies.



On the up