Limited Company Or Sole Trader – Which Is Best For Me?
One of the first decisions that any budding entrepreneur needs to make when setting up a new business is deciding which legal business structure to use when registering the business with HMRC.
Two of the most common structures to choose from include registering as a limited company or registering as a sole trader – but which is best for you?
There are pros and cons to each route, and as both are fairly easy to set up, the decision new business owners make will come down to their personal circumstances, preferences and vision for the business that they want to grow.
If you are considering setting up a new business or looking for ways to earn some additional cash on the side of your main employment, read on for pros, cons, and key points to consider when deciding whether to structure your business as a sole trader or limited company.
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What is a sole trader?
What is a limited company?
Things to consider when setting up your business
Sole trader pros and cons
Limited company pros and cons
Business Structure Choices
Whether you’re a window cleaner, web designer or running an international sales operation, every business must have a legal structure. Most businesses are set up as either a sole trader or a limited company and this decision impacts everything from how much tax you pay, the financial records that you need to keep track of, and your take home income. As a result, it’s important to carefully weigh up both options in line with your business plan so that you can make the right decision for you.
What Is A Sole Trader?
A sole trader is the simplest of business structures to set up and run. There are over 3.4 million sole traders in the UK and this type of business setup means that there is no legal separation between the business owner and the business itself.
As a result, when working as a sole trader, you can keep the profits you make after tax, but are also personally responsible for any losses the business makes. A sole trader business structure is most typically used by self-employed people who are the sole owner and operator of their business.
What Is A Limited Company?
A limited company refers to a business that has its own legal identity that is separate from the business owner or owners. There are nearly 2 million limited companies in the UK and this type of business set up means that any profits and losses made belong to the company, not the individual(s) running it as is the case with self employment.
A limited company can be set up for a business of any size, including those run by just one person. As a director of a limited company you’re responsible for decisions made by your business but the finances and liabilities are separate from your own finances.
Anybody can set up as a sole trader or limited company business by registering the business on the gov.uk website.
So now that you know the basic differences between a sole trader and limited company, how do you decide which is best for you? Read on for all the things you need to consider when making this decision for you and your business.
Things To Consider When Choosing A Business Structure
The size of your business, expected level of turnover, profits, whether you intend to employ other people, and the amount of accounting paperwork that you will be expected to complete, are just some of the factors that you should consider when narrowing down which business structure is right for you.
Take your time to weigh up the options involved for both sole trader and limited company business structures and speak to an accountant if you are unsure about anything. Their specific expertise is invaluable when it comes to tax efficiency and selecting the right business structure for your needs both now, and in the future as your venture grows.
Types of tax due
Level of personal liability
Visibility of business activity in the public domain
On-going costs to run each business type
Sole Trader Pros And Cons
One of the main differences between sole traders and limited companies is the way that tax is calculated and paid. Sole traders are required to pay tax on any profits that they make. Profits are the difference between the income you’ve received from sales or services delivered, and the expenses that you’ve incurred running the business.
Sole Trader Advantages:
Setting up a business as a sole trader is relatively easy and involves very little paperwork and zero fees to pay. Simply register with HMRC.
Filing annual accounts as a sole trader is simple and easy to do. Just register with HMRC for your self assessment ID, file your accounts annually online with a self-assessment tax return and ensure you pay your tax bill by the 31st January after the tax year you are reporting on. For full details on the steps to follow and the deadlines to meet visit gov.uk
Sole traders are not required to declare their earnings publicly like limited companies which must be shared with companies house. Some may prefer this level of privacy.
When running a business as a sole trader, the business owner gets to make all key decisions themselves and run the business operation as they see fit.
Sole Trader Disadvantages
As a sole trader is personally responsible for the financial gains and losses associated with their business activity, if the business gets into debt, this debt is the business owner’s personal liability to settle. This isn’t a problem for most sole trader setups as accurate bookkeeping and a sensible business plan goes a long way to preventing things going wrong but, if the business does run into financial difficulty then this is solely the responsibility of the business owner.
Depending on your level of earnings, tax rates for sole traders can be slightly less favourable than those afforded to limited companies. Keep an eye on your profits as when you reach a certain level of earnings it may make more sense to register as a limited company for tax efficiency.
Be aware that as a sole trader, there are two different types of national insurance to pay, class 2 and class 4 contributions. Find out more about both and the thresholds involved here.
Sole traders must rely on their own savings or personal loans to finance their business. Depending on the stability of your business plan, lenders tend to favour loans to limited companies. This is something to consider if you need significant capital to set up and run your business.